You Responded: Gatekeeping, Representation, and Inclusivity in AP

I first began this series on representation, and inclusivity in AP Lit in early July. Our country was going through a civil rights movement I had never experienced before, at least not in my own lifetime and in my own hometown. I spent a good amount of time silently reading and reflecting, until a follower on Instagram messaged me. Although I’ve never met this person, I’ll never forget the conversation.

She said: Reading and teaching the great works of Black authors is a step. Using your voice & platform to speak against anti-racist practice is another.
I replied: I never feel informed or qualified enough to speak up–how do you know when to listen versus when to speak?
She said: When you feel courageous.

This shook me.

I looked back at my 14 year career as an AP Lit teacher at private schools in the midwest and felt like I wasn’t qualified to speak up. My student population doesn’t vary much in race or socio-economic class. Furthermore, I’ve made a career out of doling out advice to AP teachers. Sometimes, we take for granted that our students are often “the best of the best.”

But then, I thought about what it meant to be brave. To be brave meant calling out institutions like the College Board for establishing years of gatekeeping in AP classes. It also meant exposing my own shortfalls in offering diverse voices in my reading material, and sharing the research I was conducting on a nightly basis. Finally, one thing I did feel qualified in doing was sharing strategies to reduce student workload and meet the needs of all students in AP classes, not just “the best of the best.”

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I’ve come to the end of my series, which I’ll recap next week (and offer myself a much needed week off as I approach the start of a new school year). But when I sat down to brainstorm this 6-week series, one thing I knew I wanted to do was share the ideas, strategies, and opinions of other AP teachers facing the same issues. Over the course of 6 weeks I’ve surveyed almost 75 people and will share my findings here. Some contributed enough to say that they struggle with these issues, which gave me hope. I no longer feel like a someone who has to have all the answers. Instead, I am a veteran teacher seeking answers among my peers, among published works, and among those in the education field internationally.

I’m listing the questions I asked in my survey verbatim below. I’ll quote some of the most helpful or profound answers, then bullet point additional thoughts and trends. All answers were recorded anonymously.

Question 1 – What kind of admission policy does your school or district have for taking AP classes? Check all that apply.

Question 1

The results were:

  • Minimum GPA requirement – 4%
  • Entrance exam – 2%
  • Minimum test score requirement – 6%
  • A prerequisite course (such as AP Lang) – 15%
  • Teacher recommendation – 36%
  • My school has no prerequisite – 62%
  • Other (these responses included administrator, guidance counselor, or parent requests or overrides) – 15%

Reflection

These responses surprised me in a good way. I expected there to be systems of gatekeeping in place in almost every school, but it sounds like that is phasing out. While there are still complaints about systems where all students must take AP Lit, it feels like the antiquated system of keeping curious learners out of the class is going.

Quote on gatekeeping

By the way, if you’re unfamiliar with the concept of gatekeeping, I encourage you to do some research about it. Simply defined, gatekeeping refers to the act of choosing who can access certain materials, services, or information. It is present in healthcare, psychology, journalism, economics, and many other spheres. This includes education. When people refer to gatekeeping in education, they are discussing systems like entrance exams, minimum GPAs, teacher recommendations, and other requirements designed to keep certain students out of a particular class or educational experience.

Question 2 – What strategies do you use to reach reluctant or low-level readers?

User answers:

I make sure to check in with the student individually every day. Sometimes a social check-in, other times during an assignment, and other times to go over the feedback I’ve given on their assignments. I also say things like “you’re going to love this story/character/etc.”

Question 2

I try to find what they are interested in. Sometimes, they need non-fiction. I had one kid who finally dove into manga and then got really into reading. You just have to show them all the possibilities.

Just try to get them excited about reading, peer pressure in a class with rigorous expectations. I can work with kids who are “lower” if they have work ethic and willingness to work.

Finding books etc that intrigue them, sometimes reading aloud passages to get them “hooked”- seating arrangements that are based on collaboration and doing lots of discussion based activities, incorporating art and artistic projects.

I begin by helping them find the right reading material. Then, I continuously rework my lessons in order to make them more collaborative and engaging. When all my best intentions are realized, my students read because they’re excited to be a part of the conversation and community we’ve created in our classroom.

I try to pick highly engaging text. I do a lot of I do, we do, you do. And I use film clips.

I read a number of pieces aloud and incorporate class discussion. I believe even my strong readers can benefit from hearing a piece, allowing them, as well as their lower peers, to better recognize tone and detail they may miss in independent reading.

Other responses and trends:

12 Engaging and Rigorous Books for Reluctant Readers
Check out this blog post for titles to engage your reluctant readers!
  • By far, the most frequent and emphatic answer to this question was student choice. This could be through independent reading or even books in the curriculum, teachers indicated that student choice equals student buy-in, thus more engagement.
  • Many indicated group activities such as partner sharing and jigsawing activities to help engage and assist lower-level students.
  • Teachers mentioned using scaffolded assignments and graphic organizers rather than constant writing assignments to gauge understanding.
  • Many teachers mentioned using audio recordings or teacher read-alouds to model proper reading and engage students.

Question 3 – What tips and strategies do you have for keeping the workload manageable for slower readers, busy students, and the learning disabled?

User answers:

Question 3

I think teachers themselves have to have a growth mindset. And we need to look at what we want all learners to gain from being in our class.

Less is more. I don’t need to teach 5 novels throughout the year. I can teach skills with fewer texts and go deeper.

All assignments are planned to include time in class to complete all work for average ability students, so nothing needs to be done outside of class time. The students with LDS work with an inclusion teacher and have their assignments modified to suit their learning needs.

I make all audio that’s available in the public domain available for my students. I also make most of the homework reading only and spend class time doing discussions, activities, etc.

Do work that is appropriate for their level. They are not in competition with the person next to them. Their goal is to improve- not to one-up the person beside them.

We do must work in class. Reading is the only homework I generally assign. We do analysis efficiently using graphic organizers and collaboration rather than a long, tedious list of questions to answer. I look for big picture analysis strategies that apply to almost anything and focus on those rather than learning all the literary terms.

A calendar for each text with built in time to catch up. I also put in the syllabus due dates are flexible if we have an honest, open discussion before the day something is due.

Other responses and trends:

  • Common answers revolved around constant communication, such as weekly meetings, regularly posted reading schedules, office hours, and emails home when a student is falling behind.
  • Many teachers rely on group work with specialized pairings (struggling student with stronger, mentor student) to help foundering students
  • Several indicated giving no homework other than reading, or completing all reading during class time.
  • Some said they simply ask students to practice time management skills and use calendars to indicate due dates.
  • Other were much more hands-on, devoting times before school, during lunch, after school, and even on Saturdays for struggling students.

Question 4 – How do you establish rigor and uphold a strong work ethic while also maintaining an inclusive classroom for multiple learning levels?

User answers:

Question 4

Rigor is about being at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy, not about work load or work “difficulty.” I can provide rigor without overwhelming students who are also taking three or four other honors/AP classes. I spend the first quarter chunking writing into very short, manageable assignments that are quick to grade for me and doable for the students. I can turn these around immediately and give feedback to students who are struggling. Because I can see where students are with these minute skills, I can schedule quick in-class conferences and get in front of issues with students who are lagging behind.

The standards are still expected but I might work more one-on-one with a small group of students or a single student on a skill. I use conferencing for all students to meet them where they are and push them forward.

A lot of assignments are projects, so students are challenged to think independently, creatively, and to create original content. The various levels of learners generally rise to those challenges. Modified rubrics are applied when necessary according to the level of learner.

I track individual progress so that students get rigor appropriate for them. Students compare their work to their own previous work, not a peer’s grade, to see improvements for themselves.

I expect each student to work to the best of their ability, whatever that may be. Conferencing is an important element of helping all students succeed.

Have clear expectations, build relationships with students, and ask critical questions, and give a variety of writing assignments and have many class discussions.

Other responses and trends:

  • While there were many strong answers, this was the most skipped question in my survey. Furthermore, several commented that they struggle with this the most, or that COVID-related changes, such as virtual instruction or the lack of group work, would hinder this more than anything else. In short, teachers seemed to be the most frustrated in answering this question.
  • Many teachers cited methods like scaffolding, conferencing, and revisions to help students reach goals. Many also emphasized the importance of individual goals rather than group goals.
  • Some answers indicated a more classic model, where students are expected to advocate for themselves. Teachers follow any IEPs, but other than that no modifications or conferences were done.
  • More, however, indicated making modifications and spending lots of time in conferences to help struggling students.
  • I got very few answers referencing particular learning styles, which I found surprising.

Question 5 – What suggestions, strategies, or ideas do you have to increase representation of all students in AP Lit? This includes diversity in race, religion, socioeconomic class, gender, sexuality, and more.*

*Due to a user error in creating the survey, question 5 was omitted for the first half of those taking the survey.

User answers:

Give them choice reading, do book talks with them, offer a class library, ask kids for suggestions on books, podcasts, IG accounts that they like and let them share. Expand GENRES for lit classes. Graphic novels (like Persepolis), novels in verse (like A Long Way Down), collections of short stories from diverse voices.

Question 5

I vary my choices of poetry and short stories from recent publications, such as The New Yorker, and I offer three choice texts from a list that includes many writers and works.

Seeing themselves in the texts they read and in the way we value the stories that are told. Using critical theory to recognize power relationships. Connecting texts to current events and putting value in both the struggles and the joy of these lives.

The more welcoming and interesting the content is the more students want to take the course. The more willing the teacher is to use grading and discussion as a measurement of success and a source for praise the more confident the students are about staying in the class.

This is a systemic problem. Students take AP Lit at my school senior year, so by then they have been told for their entire school career where they belong. I try to make sure my students and prospective students know that anyone can take the course. I also try to include works to be more inclusive of the under represented.

Boot the canon and be open to contemporary texts; let students collaborate; emphasize community rather than competition; allow students to be experts in their own cultures.

I teach in a very conservative school that restricts the diversity of the texts we read; however, I try to get students to examine the material from multiple perspectives through our discussions. They pay attention to whose voices we are not hearing. I am also going to try to use the Living Poets resources to add more voices in a “less threatening way.”

Using texts that are representative. You can still have rigor without using dead, white guys as the text.

Other responses and trends:

  • Once again, student choice was a popular response for this question.
  • Many teachers expressed frustration with the canon or their district’s selected text, but supplement their curriculum with diverse voices and perspectives through poetry, short fiction, and classroom libraries.
  • Respondents emphasized the need to discuss all literature the context it was written and in the context of our current way of life. Text pairing and aligning it with current events were suggested ideas.
  • Others suggested using critical lenses or other literary theories to help students gain critical thinking skills as they examine their school’s texts.
  • Several suggested that this issue needs to be addressed earlier, putting more representative works (particularly in sexuality and race) in the hands of middle school and elementary students.

Reflection

As I look back on the responses in this survey, I’m heartened by the overwhelming desire expressed by AP teachers who want to teach all students and want to improve our levels of representation. However, there were outliers who expressed views that AP is for select students only. Some said that differentiation and scaffolding were unneeded in an advanced class. Others even expressed views that diversity and inclusivity were not important concerns for teachers of AP Lit. While I find these expressions disappointing, I believe they reflect an outdated view of the College Board and the Advanced Placement program. Overall, it feels like most of us want to reach all students without watering down a strong academic program.

Non-White Authors to Diversify Your AP Lit Curriculum

BIPOC, Latinx, Asian, Native American, and world authors are not new to the scene. They are not “trendy.” They’ve been around for ages. Unfortunately, many teachers (myself included) have not been concerned enough over their representation in the literary canon or the AP Lit curriculum in general.

For many of us, that changed this summer.

I live in St. Paul, Minnesota. The murder of George Floyd was an eye-opener to the oppression of black people for many residents in my area and around the world. This is especially true as his murderer, officer Derek Chauvin, lives just down the road from my own home. I spent this summer reading and researching racial oppression in my country, both in the past and in the present. It’s true, I am a white woman and that this may be unknown territory for me. However, I have teachers who look to me for guidance. I want to do right. I want to be helpful. This is my best attempt.

Inclusivity in AP Lit: 2nd Installment

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This is the second installment in a six-part series on inclusivity in AP English Literature. I use “inclusivity” to refer to both the authors in the curriculum and the students in the classroom, but I’ll expound more on that in a later post. Week 1 focused on re-defining the meaning of “AP Worthy” when it comes to choosing books. You can read that post here.

This article is simply a hub to record fiction, plays, novels, poetry, and nonfiction by authors for AP Lit who are not white. You can use this list to expand your reading list beyond white authors, both personally and for your students. Furthermore, you can use it to explore more works by some of your favorite authors. For example, did you know Zora Neale Hurston wrote stories, poems, and nonfiction? There’s more to most authors than their 1-2 famous works!

Here are some of the best recommendations I can offer, and I will continue to update this list in the future. I’ve included Native American and indigenous authors, Latinx authors, and other authors from Asia, Africa, and around the world.

To clarify, I have not read all of these texts (can anyone?). However, they are based on the recommendations of AP English Literature teachers, titles from released AP English Lit exams or the College Board website. I’ve gathered recommendations from admirable movements and organizations, including #disrupttexts, #thebookchat, and #teachlivingpoets. I’ve also included links to any resources on my TpT site that I have available to help teach these authors if you’re interested.

Novels

Jesmyn Ward in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
Ward’s Salvage the Bones was a game-changer for me. She’s quickly becoming one of the most influential voices in fiction.
Khaled Hosseini in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
People didn’t know that there was literature coming out of Afghanistan until Khaled Hosseini came along.
  • Acevedo, Elizabeth – The Poet X
  • Achebe, Chinua – Things Fall Apart
  • Adeyemi, Tomi – Children of Blood and Bone
  • Aditchie, Chimamanda Ngozi – Purple Hibiscus or Americanah
  • Allende, Isabel – House of Spirits
  • Almada, Selva – The Wind That Lays Waste
  • Alvarez, Julia – How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents or In the Time of the Butterflies
  • Anaya, Rudolfo – Bless Me, Ultima
  • Baldwin, James – Giovonni’s Room, Another Country, or Go Tell It on the Mountain
  • Butler, Octavia – Parable of the Sower or Kindred
  • Cao, Lan – Monkey Bridge
  • Cisneros, Sandra – The House on Mango Street
  • Chang, Jung – Wild Swans
  • Clarke, Breena – River, Cross My Heart
  • Cleage, Pearl – What Looks Like Crazy on an Ordinary Day
  • Coates, Ta-Nehisi – The Water Dancer
  • Danticat, Edwidge – Breath, Eyes, Memory, The Farming of Bones, The Dew Breaker
  • Desai, Kiran – The Inheritance of Loss
  • Dias, Junot – The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
  • Dimaline, Cherie – The Marrow Thieves
  • Divakaruni, Chitra Banerjee – One Amazing Thing (excerpt used in 2020 AP Lit exam)
  • Edugyan, Esi – Washington Black
  • Ellison, Ralph – Invisible Man
  • Eng, Tan Twan – The Gift of Rain (excerpt used in 2020 AP Lit exam)
  • Erdich, Leslie – Love Medicine, Tracks, or Round House
  • Esquivel, Laura – Like Water For Chocolate
  • Gaines, Ernest – A Gathering of Old Men
  • Giasa, Yaa – Homegoing
  • Haley, Alex – Roots: The Saga of an American Family

“I am increasingly convinced that AP English Literature and Composition by its very nature privileges whiteness and a white view of literature. I would argue similar problems plague most Advanced Placement classes.” – Arthur Chiaravalli

  • Hami, Mohsi – Exit West
  • Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins – Iola Leroy (also called Shadows Uplifted)
  • Herrera, Yuri – Signs Preceding the End of the World
  • Hosseini, Khaled – The Kite Runner or A Thousand Splendid Suns
  • Hughes, Langston – Not Without Laughter
  • Hurston, Zora Neale – Their Eyes Were Watching God
  • Ishiguro, Kazuo – The Remains of the Day or Never Let Me Go
  • Kim, Richard E. – The Martyred
  • King, Thomas – Green Grass, Running Water
  • Kingston, Maxine Hong – The Woman Warrior
  • Kogawa, Joy – Obasan
  • Jen, Gish – Typical American
  • Jin, Ha – Waiting or A Free Life: A Novel
  • Johnson, James Weldon – The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (excerpt used in 2020 AP Lit exam)
  • Lahiri, Jhumpa – The Namesake
  • Lalami, Laila – The Other Americans (excerpt used in 2020 AP Lit exam)
  • Larsen, Nella – Passing or Quicksand
  • Lee, Chang-Rae – A Gesture Life or Native Speaker
  • Lee, Min Jin – Pachinko
  • Murakami, Haruki – Kafka on the Shore or Norwegian Wood
  • Marquez, Gabriel García – 100 Years of Solitude, Love in the Time of Cholera, or Chronicle of Death Foretold
  • Marshall, Paule – Brown Girl, Brownstones or Praisesong for the Widow
  • Mathis, Ayana – The Twelve Tribes of Hattie
  • McKay, Claude – Home to Harlem
  • Momaday, N Scott – House Made of Dawn

Another AP Lit teacher discusses the underrepresentation of Latinx authors in this excellent blog post.

  • Morrison, Toni – Beloved, Song of Solomon, Sula, or The Bluest Eye (personal favorite: Beloved)
  • Mukherjee, Bharati – Jasmine
  • Naipaul, V. S. – A Bend in the River
  • Naylor, Gloria – The Women of Brewster Place, Mama Day or Linden Hills
  • Ng, Celeste – Everything I Never Told You or Little Fires Everywhere
  • Ng, Fae M. – Bone: A Novel
  • Nguyen, Viet Thanh – The Sympathizer
  • Okada, John – No-No Boy
  • Olivarez, José – Citizen Illegal
  • Orange, Tommy – There, There
  • Petry, Ann – The Street
  • Rao, Shobha – Girls Burn Brighter
  • Roy, Arundhati – The God of Small Things
  • Rulfo, Juan – Pedro Paramo
  • Rushdie, Salmon – Midnight’s Children or Free Radio
  • Saadawi, Ahmed – Frankenstein in Baghdad
  • Sapphire – Push
  • Saramago, José – Blindness
  • Selvon, Sam – Moses Ascending
  • Silko, Leslie Marmon – Ceremony
  • Smith, Zadie – White Teeth
  • Syal, Meera – Anita and Me (excerpt used in 2020 AP Lit exam)
  • Tan, Amy – The Bonesetter’s Daughter or The Joy Luck Club
  • Thurman, Wallace – The Blacker the Berry
  • Villarreal, Jose Antonio – Pocho
  • Walker, Alice – The Color Purple
  • Ward, Jesmyn – Sing, Unburied, Sing or Salvage the Bones
  • Whitehead, Colson – The Underground Railroad or The Nickel Boys
  • Wideman, John Edgar – Sent For You Yesterday
  • Wright, Richard – Black Boy and Native Son
  • Yapa, Sunil – Your Heart is a Muscle the Size of Your Fist
Haruki Murakami in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
Haruki Murakami’s works are a unique and creative take on magical realism (which is already unique and creative on its own!).
Toni Morrison  in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
read Beloved when I was a new hire in 2006. It changed my life forever, and for me, it begins and ends with Toni Morrison.

Plays

Lorraine Hansberry in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
What if Lorraine Hansbury hadn’t died when she was 34? What accomplishments might she have achieved?
  • Fuller, Charles – A Soldier’s Play
  • Hansberry, Lorraine – A Raisin in the Sun (personal favorite)
  • Jacobs-Jenkins, Branden – Appropriate, An Octoroon, Gloria, or Everybody
  • Jones, Leroi (also known as Amiri Baraka) – Dutchman
  • Levy, Andrea and Helen Edmundson – Small Island
  • Milner, Ron – Checkmates
  • Nottage, Lynn – Sweat
  • Orta, Marisela Treviño – Shoe
  • Parks, Suzanne-Lori – Top Dog/Underdog
  • Shange, Ntozake – For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide / When the Rainbow Is Enuf
  • Smith, Anna Deavere – Fires in the Mirror
  • Valdez, Luis – Zoot Suit
  • Wilson, August – Fences or The Piano Lesson

Poems

Naomi Shihab Nye in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
“My Father and the Fig Tree” is a wonderful poem to introduce symbolism in poetry with your students. In fact, all of Nye’s poetry is popular and relatable with kids today.
Langston Hughes in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
Seriously, is there a Langston Hughes poem that isn’t a game-changer? The man is an icon.

  • Alexie, Sherman – “Evolution” and “On the Second Anniversary of My Father’s Death” (personal favorite: “Evolution”)
  • Angelou, Maya – Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water ‘fore I Diiie (collection of poems) “Phenomenal Woman” and “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings”
  • Asghar, Fatimah – “If They Should Come For Us”
  • Baldwin, James – “Untitled”
  • Braithwaite, Edward Kamau – “Ogun”
  • Brooks, Gwendolyn – “We Real Cool,” “The Bean Eaters,” “Kitchenette Building,” or “The Ballad of Rudolph Reed” (personal favorite: “We Real Cool”)
  • Brown, Jericho – “Dear Dr. Frankenstein” or “Say Thank You Say I’m Sorry”
  • Clifton, Lucille – “mulberry fields,” “won’t you celebrate with me,” “forgiving my father,” and “sorrows” (personal favorite: “mulberry fields”)
  • Coleman, Wanda – American Sonnets (poetry collection)
  • Cullen, Countee – “Incident”
  • Diaz, Natalie – “Abecedarian Requiring Further Examination of Anglikan Seraphym Subjugation of a Wild Indian Rezervation”
  • Dixon, Melvin – “Heartbeats”
  • Dove, Rita – “Ars Poetica”
  • Dunbar, Paul Laurence – “We Wear the Mask,” “The Paradox,” or “Douglass”
  • Giovanni, Nikki – “Nikki-Rosa”
  • Handal, Nathalie – “Caribe in Nueva York”
  • Harjo, Joy – “How to Write a Poem in a Time of War”
  • Harper, Michael S. – “American History”
  • Harvey, Yona – “Hurricane”
  • Hayden, Robert – “Those Winter Sundays” or “Middle Passage”
  • Hayes, Terrance – “We Should Make a Documentary About Spades”
  • Hughes, Langston – “Theme for English B,” “I, Too, Sing America,” “Cross,” “Harlem,” “Mother to Son,” or “Song For a Dark Girl” (Personal favorite: all of them)
  • Johnson, James Weldon – “A Poet to His Baby Son”
  • Joseph, Allison – “Thirty Lines About the ‘Fro”
  • Komunyakaa, Yusef – “Facing It”
  • Lee, Li-Young – “A Story” and “I Ask My Mother to Sing”
  • Lorde, Audre – “Coal”

Click here to read my top 10 poems to teach in AP Lit.

  • May, Jamaal – “There Are Birds Here” or “A Brief History of Hostility”
  • Nelson, Marilyn – “How I Discovered Poetry” or “Bedside Reading”
  • Neruda, Pablo – Any poem!
  • Nezhukumatathil, Aimee – “Baked Goods”
  • Nye, Naomi Shihab – “Defining White” and “My Father and the Fig Tree” (personal favorite: “My Father and the Fig Tree”)
  • Olivarez, José – “I Walk Into Every Room and Yell Where the Mexicans At”
  • Randall, Dudley – “Ballad of Birmingham” (personal favorite)
  • Rankine, Claudia – Citizen: An American Lyric (book-length poem), “Coherence in Consequence” or “Weather”
  • Rushdin, Kate – “The Bridge Poem” or This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color
  • Sanchez, Sonia – “This is Not a Small Voice”
  • Senior, Olive – “Plants”
  • Shakur, Tupac – The Rose That Grew from Concrete (poetry collection)
  • Shire, Warsan – “Backwards” or “The House”
  • Smith, Clint – Counting Descent (poetry collection) or “The Drone”
  • Spriggs, Bianca Lynn – “What Women Are Made Of”
  • Trethewey, Natasha – “Incident” or “Miscegenation”
  • Troupe, Quincy – “Flying Kites” or “Poem For My Father”
  • Truth, Sojourner – “Ain’t I a Woman?” (personal favorite)
  • Walcott, Derek – “Omeros” (epic poem) or “XIV”
  • Walker, Alice – “Women”
  • Walker, Margaret – “Childhood,” “For My People,” or “Lineage”
  • Wheatley, Phillis – “On Being Brought from Africa to America”
  • Woodson, Jacqueline – Brown Girl Dreaming (novel told through poetry)
Lucille Cliften in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
“mulberry fields” was completely riveting the first time I read it. And now I’m stopped in my tracks by every Lucille Clifton poem.
Li-Young Lee in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
I was first introduced to Li-Young Lee when I scored for the 2011 exam and his poem “A Story” was the prompt. Since then, I’ve been more and more impressed with his subtle but powerful imagery.

Short Stories/Short Fiction

Sandra Cisneros in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
Read “Eleven.” Read Mango Street. Read “My Name.” Read all Cisneros, now.
Jhumpa Lahiri in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
Jhumpa Lahiri’s short stories are a big hit with many students. They’re easy to relate with but also complex and great for written analysis.
  • Achebe, Chinua – “Dead Men’s Path”
  • Alvar, Mia – “The Miracle Worker”
  • Alvarez, Julia – “Antojos”
  • Angelou, Maya – “Steady Going Up”
  • Baldwin, James – “Sonny’s Blues” or “Exodus”
  • Bambara, Toni Cade – “Talkin bout Sonny,” “Maggie” or “The Organizer’s Wife”
  • Bennet Jr., Lerone – “The Convert”
  • Boehm, Lucille – “Condemned House”
  • Bontemps, Arna – “A Summer Tragedy”
  • Brown, Frank London – “A Matter of Time”
  • Brown, Sterling – “And/Or”
  • Butler, Emma E. – “Polly’s Hack Ride”
  • Butler, Octavia – “Bloodchild”
  • Dorsey, Gertrude H. – “An Equation”
  • Du Bois, W. E. B. – “The Comet,” “Jesus Christ in Texas” or “On Being Crazy”
  • Chestnutt, Charles W. – “The Passing of Grandison,” “Uncle Wellington’s Wives” or “The Goophered Grapevine”
  • Cisneros, Sandra – “Eleven,” “My Name,” or Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories (collection of short stories) (personal favorite – “Eleven”)
  • Clarke, Breena – “The Drill”
  • Clarke, John Henrik – “The Boy Who Painted Christ Black”
  • Collier, Eugenia W. – “Marigolds”
  • Danticat, Edwidge – “New York Day Women”
  • Davis, Arthur P. – “How John Boscoe Outsung the Devil”
  • Davis, John P. – “The Overcoat”
  • Due, Tananarive – Ghost Summer (collection of short stories)
  • Dunbar, Paul Laurence – “The Scapegoat” or “The Lynching of Jube Benson”
  • Ellison, Ralph – “Afternoon”
  • Erdich, Louise – “Red Convertible”
  • Evans, Danielle Valore – Before You Suffocate Your Own Fool Self (collection of short stories)
  • Fajardo-Anstine, Kali – “Sugar Babies” or “Remedies”
  • Fauset, Jessie – “Mary Elizabeth”
  • Fisher, Rudolph – “The City of Refuge”
  • Fuller, Hoyt W. – “The Senegalese”
  • Gains, Ernest J. – “The Sky is Gray”
  • Hairston, Loyle – “The Winds of Change”
  • Hamer, Martin J. – “Sarah”
  • Himes, Chester – “Mama’s Missionary Money”
  • Hughes, Langston – “Feet Live Their Own Life” or “One Friday Morning”

Did you know? Frances Ellen Watkins Harper was the first black woman to publish a short story back in 1859.

  • Hurston, Zora Neale – “Muttsy” or “The Gilded Six-Bits”
  • Jones, LeRoi – “The Screamers”
  • Jordan, Jennifer – “The Wife”
  • Kelley, William Melvin – “Cry For Me”
  • Killens, John O. – “God Bless America”
  • Kincaid, Jamaica – “Girl” (personal favorite)
  • la Guma, Alex – “The Lemon Orchard”
  • Lahiri, Jhumpa – The Interpreter of Maladies (collection of short stories)
  • LaValle, Victor – “The Ballad of Black Tom” or Slapboxing with Jesus (collection of short stories)
  • Lowe, Ramona – “The Woman in the Window”
  • Marquez, Gabriel Garcia – “A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings”, “One o f These Days,” or “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World”
  • Marshall, Paule – “Reena”
  • McBride, James – Five Carat Soul (collection of short stories)
  • McCay, Claude – “He Also Loved” or “Truant”
  • McPherson, James Alan – “On Trains”
  • Moore, Alice Ruth (also called Alice Dunbar Nelson) – “A Carnival Jangle”
  • Morrison, Toni – “Recitatif”
  • Murakami, Haruki – “Samsa in Love”
  • Murray, Albert – “Train Whistle Guitar”
  • Nettel, Guadalupe – Bezoar (collection of short stories)
  • Nichols, Laura D. – “Prodigal”
  • Offord, Carl Ruthven – “So Peaceful in the Country”
  • Orozco, Daniel – “Orientation”
  • Packer, ZZ – “Speaking in Tongues”
  • Penso, Kia – “The Gift”
  • Petry, Ann – “The Bones of Louella Brown” or “Solo on the Drums”
  • Ries, Adeline F. – “Mamma: A Story”
  • Robotham, Rosemarie – “Jesse”
  • Schweblin, Samantha – Fever Dream or Mouthful of Birds (short story collections)
  • Senna, Danzy – “The Care of the Self”
  • Shawl, Nisi – “Black Betty” or “The Water Museum”
  • Smith, John Caswell – “Fighter”
  • Suarez, Virgil – “A Perfect Hotspot”
  • Tellez, Hernando – “Lather and Nothing Else”
  • Tervalon, Jervey – “Picture This”
  • Toomer, Jean – “Becky”
  • Vroman, Mary Elizabeth – “See How They Run”
  • Walker, Alice – “Flowers,” “Elethia,” or “Everyday Use” (personal favorite – “Everyday Use”)
  • Wang, Xuan Juliana – Home Remedies (collection of short stories)
  • West, Dorothy – “The Typewriter” or “Mammy”
  • Wright, Richard – “Uncle Tom’s Children” or “Bright and Morning Star”
  • Yerby, Frank – “The Homecoming”
  • Yu, Charles – Sorry Please Thank You (collection of short stories)

Memoirs

Trevor Noah in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
Born a Crime is a wonderful memoir for students down to 9th grade. It presents Noah’s struggle living under apartheid with humor and heart.
  • Angelou, Maya – I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
  • Ashe, Arthur – Days of Grace
  • Eire, Carlos – Waiting for Snow in Havana
  • Fisher, Antwone – Finding Fish: A Memoir
  • Hurston, Zora Neale – Dust Tracks on a Road
  • Laymon, Kiese – Heavy: An American Memoir
  • Mathabane, Mark – Kaffir Boy
  • Mchado, Carmen Maria – In the Dream House
  • Noah, Trevor – Born a Crime (personal favorite)
  • Satrapi, Marjane – Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood
  • Ung, Luong – First They Killed My Father
  • Wideman, John Edgar – Brothers and Keepers
  • Yang, Kao Kalia – The Latehomecomer: A Hmong Family Memoir
  • The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot* (this author is white, but the subject and discussion on oppression and disregard for the Lacks family and black Americans in general makes it worthy of inclusion)

Nonfiction

Ibram X. Kendi in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
Ibram X. Kendi is rapidly becoming one of my favorite authors. His books and essays are instructive and riveting, and his social media presence is a pleasant mix of humility and passion. I accessed his recommendations on his website as well to supplement this nonfiction list.
  • Aditchie, Chimamanda Ngozi – We Should All Be Feminists
  • Baldwin, James – The Fire Next Time, “Notes of a Native Son,” or “Nobody Knows My Name” (essays)
  • Coates, Ta-Nehisi – Between the World and Me
  • Du Bois, W. E. B. – The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870, The Souls of Black Folk, or The Emerging Thought of W. E. B. Du Bois: Essays and Editorials from “The Crisis”
  • Edim, Glory (editory) – Well-Read Black Girl (collection of essays)
  • Ellison, Ralph – Shadow and Act
  • Haley, Alex – The Autobiography of Malcolm X
  • Hughes, Langston – “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”
  • Hurston, Zora Neale – “I Love Myself When I am Laughing and Then Again When I am Looking Mean and Impressive”
  • Kendi, Ibram X. – How to Be an AntiRacist or Stamped From the Beginning
  • Joseph, Peniel E. – Waiting ‘Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America
  • Lorde, Audre – Sister Outsider
  • Luiselli, Valeria – Tell Me How it Ends or Sidewalks
  • Morrison, Toni – Playing in the Dark or What Moves at the Margin
  • Naipaul, V. S. – Middle Passage
  • Reynolds, Jason and Ibram X. Kendi – Stamped: Racism, Antiracism and You: A Remix of the National Book Award-winning Stamped from the Beginning
  • Roberts, Dorothy – Fatal Invention
  • Stevenson, Bryan – Just Mercy
  • Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta (editor) – How We Get Free: Black Feminism and the Combahee River Collective
  • Walker, Alice – “In Search of Zora Neale Hurston”

Misc.

Martin Luther King Jr. in AP English Literature - nonwhite authors for AP Lit
I know this one seems obvious, but have you considered pairing it with a contemporary text or poem?
  • Aditchie, Chimamanda Ngozi – “The Danger of a Single Story” (TED Talk)
  • Collins, Kathleen – The Cruz Brothers and Miss Malloy and Losing Ground (film narratives)
  • DuVernay, Ava – 13th (film)
  • Glover, Donald (aka Childish Gambino) – “This is America” (music video)
  • Haley, Alex – Roots (television miniseries)
  • Hannah-Jones, Nikole – The 1619 Project (interactive website by The New York Times)
  • Hurston, Zora Neale – Barracoon – (collection of interview questions)
  • King, Martin Luther – “I Have a Dream” speech
  • Peck, Raoul – I am Not Your Negro (James Baldwin documentary)
  • Smith, Clint – “How to Raise a Black Son in America” (TED Talk)

This list took me a full week to compile but I’m sure I missed some great additions. Please comment below or email me with suggestions of other authors for AP Lit and I’ll add them to the list!